Hussain Osman, 27, also known as Hamdi Isaac, Hamdi Osman and Osman Hussain, also faces conspiracy to commit murder and explosives charges over the failed July 21 bomb attacks on three subway trains and a bus.
The charge sheet alleges that Osman — an Ethiopian national — "did attempt to murder passengers on the Transport for London system" on July 21 and "did conspire together with others" to murder travelers.
Two other charges accuse him of making or possessing an explosive substance intended to endanger life or cause serious injury and conspiring to cause explosions.
Osman, returned to Britain at Northolt air base on a flight from Rome's Ciampino airport earlier Thursday.
Metropolitan Police said Osman would be arrested on arrival on suspicion of conspiracy to commit murder, attempted murder and offenses under the Explosive Substances Act.
He faced an initial court appearance on Friday at the Belmarsh high-security prison in London, police said.
Osman was arrested on an international arrest warrant in the Italian capital on July 29.
No one was killed in the four near-simultaneous attempted attacks, which came two weeks after suicide bombings July 7 on London's transport system killed 56 people, including the four bombers.
Osman fought extradition, but Italy's highest court on Sept. 13 upheld a lower court's decision to extradite him to Britain.
Osman was returned under a new fast-track system of European arrest warrants. Italy signed up to that system on July 28, a day before Osman's arrest, Britain's Home Office said.
Three other men — Ibrahim Muktar Said, 27, Ramzi Mohamed, 23, and Yassin Omar, 24, all of London — have been charged with the July 21 attacks at three subway stations and a double-decker bus.
Through his lawyer, Osman has said his bag contained a mixture of flour and a liquid hair product and that the attack was not meant to kill.
The botched attacks came two weeks after suicide bombings on London's transport system killed 52 people and the four bombers.