Gooden, 40, showed up at the jail warrants facility about 5 p.m., police spokeswoman Laura McElroy said. He had been missing since early Monday, when an officer pulled over his 2004 BMW near downtown Tampa on suspicion of drunken driving.
He twice refused to get out of the car for a field sobriety test, then drove away suddenly, police said.
Gooden, who has a history of substance abuse and currently has a domestic violence charge pending in the court, was booked on a felony charge of fleeing police, and misdemeanor charges of DUI and resisting arrest without violence.
He was being held under a $3,000 bond, a jail spokeswoman said. McElroy said Gooden is scheduled to appear in court Friday morning for a hearing to revoke his bond on the March domestic violence charge.
"We're relieved that he has come forward, and this may be the first step toward him getting the help he needs," McElroy said.
Police looking for Gooden had talked to his attorney, Peter Hobson, on Wednesday about the possibility of Gooden surrendering, but he did not indicate if or when it was going to happen, McElroy said.
Hobson contacted the Hillsborough sheriff's office earlier Thursday and made arrangements for Gooden to surrender, sheriff's spokeswoman Debbie Carter said.
A call to Hobson's Tampa office was not immediately returned.
The 1984 Rookie of the Year and the 1985 NL Cy Young Award winner while with the New York Mets, Gooden went 194-112 with a 3.51 ERA before retiring in 2001. He also pitched for the Yankees, Cleveland Indians, Houston Astros and Tampa Bay Devil Rays.
Gooden was arrested by Tampa police in 2002 on a drunken driving charge, but later pleaded guilty to reckless driving and received a year probation. He was arrested in March and charged with hitting his live-in girlfriend in the face during an argument.
During his playing days, Gooden was suspended for 60 days in 1994 for testing positive for cocaine while with the Mets. He tested positive for cocaine again while on suspension and was sidelined for the 1995 season.
He recently worked for the Yankees as a special adviser but quit in April.